Thursday, October 1, 2009



The objectives of the project are to provide high-resolution images for Malaysia and build Malaysian space technology capabilities through ATSB®. In order to meet the technology objective, a cost-effective high resolution imaging system for Earth observation specifically for a small satellite less than 200 kg was implemented. RazakSAT® carries the Medium-sized Aperture Camera (MAC) that will provide 2.5m resolution panchromatic and 5.0m resolution multi-spectral images. This project involves the design, development, launch and operations of the satellite.

The RazakSAT® satellite is planned to be launched near in the future on a USA launcher Falcon 1 owned and operated by the company Space Exploration Technologies (SpaceX). It will be a dedicated launch from kwajalein in the Republic of Marshall Islands which is situated very close to the equator to give the best orbital injection for RazakSAT® , i.e. near equatorial orbit (NEqO). RazakSAT®s images would be applied to forestry, fishery, migration and other areas that will benefit the nation.

It carries an electro-optical payload, a Medium-sized Aperture Camera (MAC) a pushbroom camera with 5 linear detectors (1 panchromatic, 4 multi-spectral). The RazakSAT® satellite will be operated through its ground segment in Malaysia, consisting of a Mission Control Station (MCS) and Image Receiving and Processing Station (IRPS). ATSB®'s engineers are operators at the MCS and they will execute the mission plan, command generation and telemetry receiving, archiving and analysis.

ATSB® is also involved in Sg Lang Ground Station implementation project committee. ATSB® has assisted in development of the system specification to support RazakSAT® Mission Control Station (MCS) and Image Receiving and Processing Station (IRPS).

topologies in networking


A network topology is the geometric arrangement of nodes and cable links in a LAN, thats what we learn in the class...need 2 find 2 more types of topologys...MESH n TREE

There are three topology’s to think about when you get into networks. These are the star, ring, and the bus.
Star - a ring topology features a logically closed loop. Data packets travel in a single direction around the ring from one network device to the next. Each network device acts as a repeater, meaning it regenerates the signal
Ring - in a star topology each node has a dedicated set of wires connecting it to a central network hub. Since all traffic passes through the hub, the hub becomes a central point for isolating network problems and gathering network statistics.
Bus - the bus topology, each node (computer, server, peripheral etc.) attaches directly to a common cable. This topology most often serves as the backbone for a network. In some instances, such as in classrooms or labs, a bus will connect small workgroups


A type of network setup where each of the computers and network devices are interconnected with one another, allowing for most transmissions to be distributed, even if one of the connections go down. This type of topology is not commonly used for most computer networks as it is difficult and expensive to have redundant connection to every computer. However, this type of topology is commonly used for wireless networks. Below is a visual example of a simple computer setup on a network using a mesh topology.


Among all the Network Topologies we can derive that the Tree Topology is a combination of the bus and the Star Topology. The tree like structure allows you to have many servers on the network and you can branch out the network in many ways. This is particularly helpful for colleges, universities and schools so that each of the branches can identify the relevant systems in their own network and yet connect to the big network in some way.



NETWORKING CABLE 2...PRO'S N CON'STypes of Networking Cables:The three main types of networking cables are coaxial cable, twisted-pair cable and fiber optic cable and the differences................

Coaxial Cable:

Coaxial cable is made of two conductors that share the same axis; the center is a copper wire that is insulated by a plastic coating and then wrapped with an outer conductor (usually a wire braid). This outer conductor around the insulation serves as electrical shielding for the signal being carried by the inner conductor. A tough insulating plastic tube outside the outer conductor provides physical and electrical protection.
At one time, coaxial cable was the most widely used network cabling. However, with improvements and the lower cost of twisted-pair cables, it has lost its popularity.

Network Cable Types:

There are two types of coaxial cable.
1. ThickNet
2. ThinNet


ThickNet is about .38 inches in diameter. This makes it a better conductor, and it can carry a signal about 1640 feet (500 meters) before signal strength begins to suffer. The disadvantage of ThickNet over ThinNet is that it is more difficult to work with. The ThickNet version is also known as standard Ethernet cable.


ThinNet is the easiest to use. It is about .25 inches in diameter, making it flexible and easy to work with (it is similar to the material commonly used for cable TV).ThinNet can carry a signal about 605 feet (185 meters) before signal strength begins to suffer.

Twisted-Pair Cable:

Twisted-pair cable consists of two insulated strands of copper wire twisted around each other to form a pair. One or more twisted pairs are used in a twisted-pair cable. The purpose of twisting the wires is to eliminate electrical interference from other wires and outside sources such as motors. Twisting the wires cancels any electrical noise from the adjacent pair. The more twists per linear foot, the greater the effect.

Network Cable Types

There are two types of twisted pair cable

1. Shielded Twisted Pair (STP)
2. Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP)

Shielded Twisted Pair (STP):

The only difference between STP and UTP is that STP has a foil or wire braid wrapped around the individual wires of the pairs. The shielding is designed to minimize EMI radiation and susceptibility to crosstalk. The STP cable uses a woven-copper braided jacket, which is a higher-quality, more protective jacket than UTP.

Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP):As the name implies, "unshielded twisted pair" (UTP) cabling is twisted pair cabling that contains no shielding.

UTP cables can be divided further into following categories:
Category 1 : Traditional telephone cable. Carries voice but not data
Category 2 : Certified UTP for data transmission of up to 4 megabits per second (Mbps). It has four twisted pairs
Category 3 : Certified UTP for data transmission of up to 10 Mbps. It has four twisted pairs Category 4 : Certified UTP for data transmission of up to 16 Mbps. It has four twisted pairs
Category 5 : Certified for data transmission of up to 100 Mbps. It has four twisted pairs of copper wire
Category 6 :Offers transmission speeds up to 155 Mbps
Category 7 :Category 7 is a proposed standard that aims to support transmission at frequencies up to 600 MHzTwisted-pair cable has several advantages over other types of cable (coaxial and fiberoptic): It is readily available, easy to install, and inexpensive. Among its disadvantages are its sensitivity to electromagnetic interference (EMI), its susceptibility to eavesdropping, its lack of support for communication at distances of greater than 100 feet, and its requirement of a hub (multiple network connection point) if it is to be used with more than two computers. Twisted pair cables use RJ45 connector.

Fiberoptic Cable:

Fiberoptic cable is made of light-conducting glass or plastic fibers. It can carry data signals in the form of modulated pulses of light. The plastic-core cables are easier to install but do not carry signals as far as glass-core cables. Multiple fiber cores can be bundled in the center of the protective tubing.

Network Cable Types

When both material and installation costs are taken into account, fiberoptic cable can prove to be no more expensive than twisted-pair or coaxial cable. Fiber has some advantages over copper wire: It is immune to EMI and detection outside the cable and provides a reliable and secure transmission media. It also supports very high bandwidths (the amount of information the cable can carry), so it can handle thousands of times more data than twisted-pair or coaxial cable.Cable lengths can run from .25 to 2.0 kilometers depending on the fiberoptic cable and network. If you need to network multiple buildings, this should be the cable of choice. Fiberoptic cable systems require the use of fiber-compatible NICs.

Twisted pair cabling is a form of wiring in which two conductors (the forward and return conductors of a single circuit) are twisted together for the purposes of canceling out electromagnetic interference (EMI) from external sources; for instance, electromagnetic radiation from Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) cables, and crosstalk between neighboring pairs.

Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP)

This is the most popular form of cables in the network and the cheapest form that you can go with. The UTP has four pairs of wires and all inside plastic sheathing. The biggest reason that we call it Twisted Pair is to protect the wires from interference from themselves. Each wire is only protected with a thin plastic sheath.

Shielded Twisted Pair (STP)

Is more common in high-speed networks. The biggest difference you will see in the UTP and STP is that the STP use’s metallic shield wrapping to protect the wire from interference.-
Something else to note about these cables is that they are defined in numbers also. The bigger the number the better the protection from interference. Most networks should go with no less than a CAT 3 and CAT 5 is most recommended.-Now you know about cables we need to know about connectors. This is pretty important and you will most likely need the RJ-45 connector. This is the cousin of the phone jack connector and looks real similar with the exception that the RJ-45 is bigger. Most commonly your connector are in two flavors and this is BNC (Bayonet Naur Connector) used in thicknets and the RJ-45 used in smaller networks using UTP/STP.



MyEG Services Berhad is a concessionaire for the Malaysian E-Government MSC Flagship Application. MyEG role as a Service Provider for the E-Services component essentially provides the electronic link between the Government and citizens/businesses. Through MyEG portal, MyEG offer the Malaysian public a single point of contact between the Government and the people it serves.
MyEG portal enables Malaysians to dynamically interact with numerous agencies within the Federal, State and the Local Government machinery providing services ranging from information searches to licence applications. To cater the services which require physical presence/interaction, MyEG has set up E-Service Centres located throughout the country to complement our online presence.
We believe that through this dual approach, we can enhance the relationship and quality of interaction between the Government of Malaysia and it’s citizens.MyEG Services has established the electronic link between the Government and citizens/businesses. This website enables the Malaysian public a single point of contact between the Government and the people it serves. There are a few other services currently being offered at the website.




There is a major difference between Apple's Macintosh Operating System(Mac OS) and Microsoft's Windows Operating System(Windows). Nevertheless, they do share some things...
They both use a windowed-style GUI (Graphical User Interface), and contain a program for using the CLI (Command Line Interface) portion.
Their differences are much more numerous...

Many criticize Windows for being stubborn and unresponsive in times of great amounts of computing or operating, as well as being more complicated and having a lot less features. It is also criicised, in its latest incarnation, Windows Vista, for copying many features from the Mac OS (especially Mac OS X).

Mac OS (X), on the other hand (after tranlating from the former Mac OS 1-9 to Mac OS X) is usuall praised for its simple and easyness of use. It is also praised for its streamlined look and features, as well as effective and efficient system and "force quit" system, in case of any unresponiveness.

Mac OS, formerly a Power PC Operating System, is typically only used on Apple's hardware(reffered to as "Macs"), while Windows is typically universal. (Since Apple switching to Intel Processors, many people have found ways to install the Mac OS on non-Apple PCs (known simply as PCs)

Mac OS as been known more for its attractiveness to creative industries, such as the movie industry, and for those who are more, "fun-oriented", while Windows is usually catagorized with businesses, and what people call "boring-people"
RILEK portal & uses of the internet 4 business purposes


RILEK PORTALe Services with RILEKeServices is one of the six Malaysia’s Electronic Government Flagship Applications. In conjunction with the said initiative, KOMMS introduces RILEK to provide innovative online solutions and direct system linkages to JPJ, TNB, Telekom and various financial institutions. These provide us an edge in online payment authorization and multiple services integration.RILEK provides different options for you, either through our user-friendly kiosks located widely, our website at or RILEK Center, within one host; serving the same purpose. RILEK is the revolutionary way to perform all your Jabatan Pengangkutan Jalan (JPJ), Telekom Malaysia Berhad (TMB) transactions electronically via various delivery channels. RILEK offers JPJ Driving Licensing services, summons payment and inquiries on Kejara Points. Our services include electronic utility bill payment for TNB and Telekom bills. You can complete all your billing payments and inquiries from anywhere.
FUTURE PLANS Besides existing collaborations with the above agencies, RILEK envisions expanding our services to other government agencies soon. Plans are being developed for immediate implementations to make a difference to your lifestyle. In the near future, you will be able to utilize the Government Multi Purpose Card (GMPC) and ATM cards to complete your payment transactions.* Introducing RILEK as the revolutionary way to perform all your e-government services:* Jabatan Pengangkutan Jalan (JPJ)* Polis DiRaja Malaysia (PDRM)* Telekom Malaysia Berhad (TMB)* Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB)* We provide easy transactions electronically via various delivery channels.* RILEK offers JPJ Driving Licences services, summons payments and inquiries on Kejara points.* Our services include electronic utility bill payment for TNB and Telekom bills.* RILEK represent reliability, simplicity and security. RILEK is equipped with high-end multimedia facilities and system support to accommodate heavy traffic flow. In addition, it is capable of processing information at an efficient and high-speed rate. RILEK promotes a hassle-free and innovative lifestyle that is designed to eliminate queues and frustrations. RILEK combines advanced technology and human proficiency to enhance your lifestyle.5/8/2009uses of the internet 4 business purposes Business-to-consumer (B2C)sometimes also called Business-to-Customer) describes activities of businesses serving end consumers with products and/or services.An example of a B2C transaction would be a person buying a pair of shoes from a retailer. The transactions that led to the shoes being available for purchase, that is the purchase of the leather, laces, rubber, etc. as well as the sale of the shoe from the shoemaker to the retailer would be considered (B2B) transactions.Business-to-business (B2B)describes commerce transactions between businesses, such as between a manufacturer and a wholesaler, or between a wholesaler and a retailer. Contrasting terms are business-to-consumer (B2C) and business-to-government (B2G).The volume of B2B transactions is much higher than the volume of B2C transactions. The primary reason for this is that in a typical supply chain there will be many B2B transactions involving subcomponent or raw materials, and only one B2C transaction, specifically sale of the finished product to the end customer. For example, an automobile manufacturer makes several B2B transactions such as buying tires, glass for windshields, and rubber hoses for its vehicles.
The final transaction, a finished vehicle sold to the consumer, is a single (B2C) transaction.Consumer-to-consumer (C2C)(or citizen-to-citizen) electronic commerce involves the electronically-facilitated transactions between consumers through some third party. A common example is the online auction, in which a consumer posts an item for sale and other consumers bid to purchase it; the third party generally charges a flat fee or commission. The sites are only intermediaries, just there to match consumers. They do not have to check quality of the products being offered. example : e-bay



digitalization data -------> digital audio era
-------> digital texs era
-------> digital video era
-------> digital publish era

* digital texs era : short sms example
1. you --> u
2. love --> luv
3. massage --> msg
4. dont ---> don
5. becouse --> coz
6. sometime --> somtme
7. maybe --> myb
8. computer --> com
9. everything --> evrything
10. have --> hve



we learned about multimedia.
multi means many and media about medium or means by which infomation is store

family day raye..huhu..

time ni da wat brbique kt umh maktok.....siap men bnga api lgi...
bkn slalu nk kmbali kt zman tua2 dlu...kang dh muda..


time rye ri2...amai sdara yg blik kg kt perlis....

mcm2 aksi ader...bes thap kritikal la gk...

riang ria aidilfitri kta kn....yg ni suku dri pupu i..da rmai lg